I incorrectly assumed that MVC would request an IFilterProvider from the dependency resolver, but it seems to get it directly from the static FilterProviders class. The RegisterAttributeFilterProvider method of the MVC NuGet package should have registered
the SimpleInjectorFilterAttributeFilterProvider to the FilterProviders class.
What you can do to fix this is, go to the definition of the RegisterAttributeFilterProvider method and replace the following line:
with the following:
I hope this helps.